Going Deeper: The Higher and Lower Self

Although Satan, the Devil, and Iblis (the equivalent of the Devil in Islam) are generally regarded as evil, the lower self I refer to in this article isn’t necessarily evil.

When a dolphin snags a sardine, a baleen whale scoops up a mouthful of krill, a lion runs down a wildebeest, or a bat eats a mosquito, they are motivated by the lower self to compete selfishly in the big fish eats little fish world, but we don’t consider that evil.

Evil is something human beings have evolved that only comes into play when the behavior of a human being becomes unnecessarily cruel, brutal, sadistic, or depraved, which is to say, when they heap abuse on other living things in order to torture and control them, or protect themselves from prosecution or loss of power.